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A discussion of each of these three systemic factors and their impacts on UREs follows. One of the major catalysts for this national-level reform was the Boyer Commission Boyer Commission on Education of Undergraduates in the Research University, , which issued a report calling for research-based learning to become the standard in undergraduate education, particularly at research universities. Moreover, national bodies have called for increasing opportunities that are student-centered and inquiry-based in STEM disciplines Kuh, ; National Research Council, ; National Science Foundation, Although these national-level calls for reform can encourage funding for undergraduate research, new initiatives can also shift research priorities and the types of projects that are funded, which can have substantial impacts on broader opportunities for students to engage in research.

For example, the National Institutes of Health has developed two initiatives geared toward increasing the participation of historically underrepresented groups in the biomedical sciences by providing them with access to resources and preparation for graduate-level work.

This RISE funding can be used to pay salaries to undergraduates participating in research. Thousands of freshmen students have participated in this initiative since Rodenbusch et al. For more information on this initiative, see Box in Chapter 2. NSF also has a portfolio dedicated to supporting UREs, called Research Experiences for Undergraduates REU that provides funding for programs and projects that encourage active research participation by undergraduate students. For this report, the committee used the DIA2 tool 5 to extract the number of awards and the award amount per year for REU grants from to Figure depicts this gradual increase from through in number of awards left side and total award amount right side ; there is a relative plateau beginning around for both measures of funding level.

The tool currently accesses a database of more than , grants awarded by NSF from to present. Federal and state policy, including the length of time that individual grants for UREs are awarded, and the funding priorities of major foundations affect the kinds of undergraduate research that are offered at colleges and universities nationally. A large problem is nonrenewable funding that is available to launch and start UREs.

To see sustained impacts,. This can make it difficult to show the impacts and secure additional funding. In addition to the availability and kinds of funding for UREs e. For example, it is possible that recent emphasis on having students complete their degrees as quickly as possible could discourage institutions from supporting longer-term e. Policies that emphasize keeping tuition and fees as low as possible could discourage development of CUREs, which sometimes may be funded in part by an increase in student lab fees or by additional costs for enrolling in STEM courses compared with those in other disciplines.

Access to program evaluations may not be widely available unless published in peer-reviewed journals or disciplinary society publications. Institutional initiatives, mission, and culture can impact the degree to which there is financial and logistical support for the development of UREs and how those activities may be structured. These institutional priorities, in turn, are influenced by national and state education policies and priorities. Other research on this topic shows that if institutions align policies and practices that support student success, then students are more likely to persist Berger, ; Kuh, Institutional support for UREs may be less common in community colleges than at small liberal arts colleges and research-intensive universities.

Institutions also provide the infrastructure and resources to support undergraduate research more generally. At a broader level, it might include the creation of an office of undergraduate research to facilitate the promotion and implementation of such programs. Moreover, the institution might sponsor campus-wide initiatives that support UREs by providing supplemental funds to students engaging in research i.

However, institutions can broaden or impede student participation in UREs through their faculty promotion and reward structures. In other institutions, supporting undergraduates in research is an expected activity. When individual institutions decide to expand participation in undergraduate research, they may do so through a variety of approaches. For example, some colleges or universities may make participation in at least one URE mandatory rather than optional for the student.

The Benefits of Undergraduate Research: The Student's Perspective

This could be achieved by supporting the development of more course-based experiences to involve more undergraduates per mentor. It could also be achieved through partnering with other institutions of higher education, local or regional research organizations, or industries that conduct research and development.

Decades-long partnerships between predominantly white institutions and historically black colleges and universities through undergraduate research programs are one example of such partnerships Louis et al. Similarly, community colleges sometimes partner with baccalaureate-granting institutions to provide their students with access to faculty and facilities Russell et al.

Additional opportunities may exist through study abroad programs or with local, national, or international consortia. The require-. Making a URE a graduation requirement increases participation, whereas numerous other requirements could likely decrease participation in research. An evaluation of the existing curriculum might spur departments to adapt or add courses to increase accessibility to UREs for their majors, and potentially also for nonmajors.

For example, one national study sent out a web-based survey to all recipients of eight NSF-funded grants that included an undergraduate research component. Almost 15, students responded to the survey. Approximately 72 percent of students that majored in chemistry and 74 percent that majored in environmental science stated that they had participated in UREs, whereas 34 percent of students in mathematics and computer science stated they had such opportunities Russell et al.

These disciplinary differences may be driven in part by the various STEM disciplines promoting different kinds of knowledge, skill sets, and approaches. For other fields, such as mathematics, the learning of content is not specifically tied to an occupation.

For fields such as engineering, where the curriculum may lead to a career path in certain industries, participating in UREs that focus on the relevant knowledge may be important. Furthermore, facilities and time to allow faculty to properly engage undergraduate students in research are important Shortlidge et al. Disciplinary societies, professional societies, and national networks also play an important role in the national policy discussion and shape the context that supports UREs.

Societies of STEM research professionals traditionally have served as a platform for leaders and members from their respective STEM fields and subspecialties to present their research and to discuss challenges and opportunities in their field. These meetings provide opportunities for professional development and provide networking opportunities among members at regional and national levels.

Some also have sessions or entire conferences focused on education, in addition to those. For example, the National Conferences on Undergraduate Research are meetings completely devoted to undergraduates sharing their own research. Institutions, departments, and individual faculty each impact the precise nature of UREs in multiple ways and at multiple levels. The physical resources available, including laboratories, field stations, engineering design studios, and testing facilities, can influence the design of the research question as well as the ability to access resources in the surrounding community including other parts of the campus.

Institutions with an explicit mission to promote undergraduate research may provide more time, resources e. The culture of the institution with respect to innovation in pedagogy and support for faculty development can impact the extent to which UREs are introduced or improved. These conditions suggest that UREs may need support from the institutional level in order to become sustainable and widespread in an institution.

These goals, coupled with the design principles—make STEM research accessible, help students learn from each other, make thinking visible, and promote autonomy—can set the stage for a robust experience that can help students generate deeper learning. Many research. The degree to which UREs are designed using the existing educational literature on pedagogy and how people learn is not clear. The heterogeneity of UREs as described in Chapter 2 stems from variability associated with the multiple systemic factors, goals, and design principles described in this chapter.

National calls for reform efforts and opportunities for funding shape UREs on campus. However, institutions, departments, and faculty play a big role in creating the context that surrounds the URE. When there is alignment between the policies and culture, there may be an increase in the likelihood of sustaining a URE. Adedokun, O. Understanding how undergraduate research experiences influence student aspirations for research careers and graduate education. Journal of College Science Teaching , 42 1 , Auchincloss, L.

Assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences: A meeting report. Barr, D. Chemistry courses as the turning point for premedical students. Advances in Health Sciences Education , 15 1 , Barton, A. Educational Policy , 12 5 , Berger, J. Understanding the organizational nature of student persistence: Empirically-based recommendations for practice.

Journal of College Student Retention, 3 1 , Bjork, E. Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. Gernsbacher, R. Pew, L. Hough, and J. Pomerantz Eds. New York: Worth Publishers. Bjork, R. Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64 , Blockus, L. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Bransford, J. It takes expertise to make expertise: Some thoughts about why and how.

Ericsson Ed. Brew, A. Understanding the scope of undergraduate research: A framework for curricular and pedagogical decision-making. Higher Education, 66 , Brown, A. Guided Discovery in a Community of Learners. Brownell, S. Toward a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of course-based undergraduate research experiences in undergraduate biology.

Studies in Higher Education, 40 3 , A high enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data. Clancy, M. New roles for students, instructors, and computers in a lab-based introductory programming course. Clement, N. Perspectives from research and practice in values education. Lovat and R.

Toomey Eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Collins, A. The computer as a tool for learning through reflection. M Sebrechts, G. Fisher, and P. Fisher Eds. New York: Springer US. Cook-Deegan, R.

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Higher Education Research in Europe

New York: Norton. Cortright, R. Student retention of course content is improved by collaborative-group testing. Advances in Psychology Education, 27 , Corwin, L. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: An agenda for future research and evaluation. Faculty opponent review: On mole and amount of substance: A study of the dynamics of concept formation and concept attainment.

Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, 1 4 , Dolan, E. Elrod, S. Increasing student success in STEM. Peer Review , 17 2. Estrada, M. Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1 , Feldman, A.

Becoming researchers: The participation of undergraduate and graduate students in scientific research groups. Science Education, 97 2 , Hernandez, P. Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1.

Hurtado, S. Training future scientists: Predicting first-year minority student participation in health science research. Research in Higher Education , 49 2 , Johnson, D. Cooperative learning and social interdependence theory. Tindale, L. Heath, J. Edwards, E. Posavac, F.

The Institutional Basis of Higher Education Research : Experiences and Perspectives - hobinoveqa.cf

Bryant, Y. Suzrez-Balcazar, E. Henderson-King, and J. Myers Eds. New York: Plenum. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 , The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19 1 , Johri, A. Situated engineering learning: Bridging engineering education research and the learning sciences. Journal of Engineering Education, 1 , Jordan, T.

A broadly implementable research course in phage discovery and genomics for first-year undergraduate students. MBio , 5 1 , e Karpicke, J. Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?. Memory , 17 4 , Katkin, W. The Boyer Commission Report and its impact on undergraduate research.

New Directions for Teaching and Learning , 93 , Keller, C. Kezar, A. Examining the ways institutions create student engagement: The role of mission. Journal of College Student Development , 47 2 , Kollar, I. Internal and external scripts in computer supported collaborative inquiry learning. Learning and Instruction, 17 6 , Koretsky, M. Student perception of learning in the laboratory: Comparison of industrially situated virtual laboratories to capstone physical laboratories.

Journal of Engineering Education, 3 , Kuh, G. Organizational culture and student persistence: Prospects and puzzles. Laursen, S. Lee, Jr. Lemke, J. Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Linn, M. Designing computer learning environments for engineering and computer science: The Scaffolded Knowledge Integration framework. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 4 2 , The knowledge integration perspective on learning and instruction.

Sawyer Ed. The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press. New York: Routledge. Cognitive and conceptual change in adolescence. American Journal of Education, 99 4 , Litzinger, T. Engineering education and the development of expertise. Liu, O. Validation of automated scoring of science assessments. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53 2 , Louis, D. Historically black colleges and universities: Undergraduate research, mentoring and extending the graduate pipeline. Mayer, R. Multimedia learning in an interactive self-explaining environment: What works in the design of agent-based microworlds?

Journal of Educational Psychology , 95 4 , Mendoza, N. Enculturation of diverse students to the engineering sciences through first year engineering college experiences at a southwestern institution: An exploratory work in progress.

Future Directions for Higher Education Policy Research

Merkel, C. California Institute of Technology. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. National Research Council. Donovan, J. Bransford, and J. Pellegrino Eds. Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. Singer, M. Hilton, and H. Schweingruber Eds. Bell, B. Lewenstein, A. Shouse, and M. Feder Eds. Singer, N. Nielsen, and H.

Kober author. National Science Foundation. Okita, S. Learning by teaching human pupils and teachable agents: The importance of recursive feedback. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 22 3 , Ong, M. Inside the double bind: A synthesis of empirical research on undergraduate and graduate women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Harvard Educational Review, 81 2 , Pfund, C. Prior, P. Academic enculturation: Developing literate practices and disciplinary identities. Castell and C. Donahue Eds. Pryor, J. Quellmalz, E. Science assessments for all: Integrating science simulations into balanced state science assessment systems.

Journal of Research in Science Teaching , 49 3 , Quintana, C. A scaffolding design framework for software to support science inquiry. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 3 , Reif, F. John, M. American Journal of Physics , 47 11 , Rodenbusch, S. Early engagement in course-based research increases graduation rates and completion of science, engineering, and mathematics degrees.

Russell, S. Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. In this process, students use many of the reasoning strategies desired in STEM fields, such as drawing on evidence and forming arguments to reach conclusions. Activities that require students to generate their own explanations of concepts or explain a concept to another person are thought of as revealing an element of reflection. To assess student ability to investigate research dilemmas autonomously, designers can examine the progress students make in UREs as reflected in the products they create, such as research reports or posters for meetings.

Another approach is to build online miniprojects that could reveal student progress in developing these skills; some such assessments employ automated scoring, an advantage when increasing the size of a program e. Research increasingly involves collaboration and learning from others as problems become more and more complex e. Many argue that students learn more effectively when they collaborate Brown and Campione, ; Linn and Hsi, ; Vygotsky, Yet collaboration is not universally efficient or effective for learning Kollar et al.

To benefit from collaboration, students often need to learn how to learn from each other. In such a community, students share the responsibility for thinking and doing. Social interactions may also have a positive effect on motivation by making individuals feel they are contributing something to others Schwartz, Supporting and promoting collaboration has potential for UREs Brownell et al.

However, orchestrating collaboration is difficult. Students must be able to respect the ideas of their peers, negotiate meaning, and guide peers who are less able. Individual students come to UREs with a complex set of ideas stemming from their own cultural identity, previous academic experiences, and personal reflection. Students might have specific ideas about STEM-related. As noted above, students may need to distinguish new ideas and prior knowledge. An important step in helping students learn and gain a better understanding of the research enterprise is to ask them to make their ideas visible.

Students develop better conceptual understanding when they make predictions than when they do not Linn and Songer, ; Mayer et al. In addition, the process of reflecting and explaining their reasoning often helps students recognize flaws in their own reasoning Collins and Brown, Encouraging students to make their thinking visible both when they generate explanations and when they revise them can promote knowledge integration.

These activities can set in motion a process of revisiting STEM-specific issues when they arise in new contexts, such as news articles or public lectures. Autonomous learners sort out their existing ideas and integrate them with new ideas in order to continue to build coherent understanding.

By practicing reflection regularly, students can develop the ability to monitor their own progress and to recognize new connections as they arise. Reflection is common when STEM professionals maintain notebooks where they record results and identify trends. Instructors and mentors can encourage students to maintain notebooks and use them to make their thinking visible. They can ask students to include discussions of their struggles to conduct their project and the limitations of their work. In CUREs, instructors can include essay examinations rather than relying on multiple-choice questions to instill a practice of reflection.

This approach has the advantage of being both part of the instruction and a source of insights into student progress Lee et al. Programs of undergraduate research are nested within multiple contexts. There are systemic factors—national and state policy, institutions, and departments and disciplines—that can have a top-down influence by promoting opportunities or placing constraints on UREs through reforms and funding. There are also more-local factors involved in the implementation of UREs—that is, designers including faculty, mentors, and evaluators and students.

As described in Chapter 2 , UREs are heterogeneous, which is not surprising given the variation in systemic factors and the diverse views of. They vary on multiple dimensions. Programs of undergraduate research can differ in terms of leadership i. UREs also can vary in expectations or goals for students, mentoring provided, value for career trajectory e. Moreover, UREs can vary in how they are funded and how they are situated within the university.

Given this variability, it can be challenging to cleanly categorize UREs and even more difficult to identify how many programs of any given type are being offered. Chapter 2 provides a more in-depth discussion of program types. In fact, data on the number of students who participate in UREs nationally is not systematically collected, although some funders do collect data on programs they sponsor. Systemic factors include variation in institutional support e. In short, the substantial heterogeneity of UREs across multiple dimensions is due in part to the nature of the higher education system.

These systemic factors interact with each other as shown in Figure A discussion of each of these three systemic factors and their impacts on UREs follows. One of the major catalysts for this national-level reform was the Boyer Commission Boyer Commission on Education of Undergraduates in the Research University, , which issued a report calling for research-based learning to become the standard in undergraduate education, particularly at research universities. Moreover, national bodies have called for increasing opportunities that are student-centered and inquiry-based in STEM disciplines Kuh, ; National Research Council, ; National Science Foundation, Although these national-level calls for reform can encourage funding for undergraduate research, new initiatives can also shift research priorities and the types of projects that are funded, which can have substantial impacts on broader opportunities for students to engage in research.

For example, the National Institutes of Health has developed two initiatives geared toward increasing the participation of historically underrepresented groups in the biomedical sciences by providing them with access to resources and preparation for graduate-level work. This RISE funding can be used to pay salaries to undergraduates participating in research. Thousands of freshmen students have participated in this initiative since Rodenbusch et al. For more information on this initiative, see Box in Chapter 2. NSF also has a portfolio dedicated to supporting UREs, called Research Experiences for Undergraduates REU that provides funding for programs and projects that encourage active research participation by undergraduate students.

For this report, the committee used the DIA2 tool 5 to extract the number of awards and the award amount per year for REU grants from to Figure depicts this gradual increase from through in number of awards left side and total award amount right side ; there is a relative plateau beginning around for both measures of funding level. The tool currently accesses a database of more than , grants awarded by NSF from to present. Federal and state policy, including the length of time that individual grants for UREs are awarded, and the funding priorities of major foundations affect the kinds of undergraduate research that are offered at colleges and universities nationally.

A large problem is nonrenewable funding that is available to launch and start UREs. To see sustained impacts,. This can make it difficult to show the impacts and secure additional funding. In addition to the availability and kinds of funding for UREs e. For example, it is possible that recent emphasis on having students complete their degrees as quickly as possible could discourage institutions from supporting longer-term e. Policies that emphasize keeping tuition and fees as low as possible could discourage development of CUREs, which sometimes may be funded in part by an increase in student lab fees or by additional costs for enrolling in STEM courses compared with those in other disciplines.

Access to program evaluations may not be widely available unless published in peer-reviewed journals or disciplinary society publications. Institutional initiatives, mission, and culture can impact the degree to which there is financial and logistical support for the development of UREs and how those activities may be structured. These institutional priorities, in turn, are influenced by national and state education policies and priorities.

Exchange Discount Summary

Other research on this topic shows that if institutions align policies and practices that support student success, then students are more likely to persist Berger, ; Kuh, Institutional support for UREs may be less common in community colleges than at small liberal arts colleges and research-intensive universities.

Institutions also provide the infrastructure and resources to support undergraduate research more generally. At a broader level, it might include the creation of an office of undergraduate research to facilitate the promotion and implementation of such programs. Moreover, the institution might sponsor campus-wide initiatives that support UREs by providing supplemental funds to students engaging in research i.

However, institutions can broaden or impede student participation in UREs through their faculty promotion and reward structures. In other institutions, supporting undergraduates in research is an expected activity. When individual institutions decide to expand participation in undergraduate research, they may do so through a variety of approaches. For example, some colleges or universities may make participation in at least one URE mandatory rather than optional for the student.

This could be achieved by supporting the development of more course-based experiences to involve more undergraduates per mentor. It could also be achieved through partnering with other institutions of higher education, local or regional research organizations, or industries that conduct research and development. Decades-long partnerships between predominantly white institutions and historically black colleges and universities through undergraduate research programs are one example of such partnerships Louis et al.

Similarly, community colleges sometimes partner with baccalaureate-granting institutions to provide their students with access to faculty and facilities Russell et al. Additional opportunities may exist through study abroad programs or with local, national, or international consortia. The require-. Making a URE a graduation requirement increases participation, whereas numerous other requirements could likely decrease participation in research. An evaluation of the existing curriculum might spur departments to adapt or add courses to increase accessibility to UREs for their majors, and potentially also for nonmajors.

For example, one national study sent out a web-based survey to all recipients of eight NSF-funded grants that included an undergraduate research component. Almost 15, students responded to the survey. Approximately 72 percent of students that majored in chemistry and 74 percent that majored in environmental science stated that they had participated in UREs, whereas 34 percent of students in mathematics and computer science stated they had such opportunities Russell et al.

These disciplinary differences may be driven in part by the various STEM disciplines promoting different kinds of knowledge, skill sets, and approaches. For other fields, such as mathematics, the learning of content is not specifically tied to an occupation. For fields such as engineering, where the curriculum may lead to a career path in certain industries, participating in UREs that focus on the relevant knowledge may be important.

Furthermore, facilities and time to allow faculty to properly engage undergraduate students in research are important Shortlidge et al. Disciplinary societies, professional societies, and national networks also play an important role in the national policy discussion and shape the context that supports UREs. Societies of STEM research professionals traditionally have served as a platform for leaders and members from their respective STEM fields and subspecialties to present their research and to discuss challenges and opportunities in their field.

These meetings provide opportunities for professional development and provide networking opportunities among members at regional and national levels. Some also have sessions or entire conferences focused on education, in addition to those. For example, the National Conferences on Undergraduate Research are meetings completely devoted to undergraduates sharing their own research. Institutions, departments, and individual faculty each impact the precise nature of UREs in multiple ways and at multiple levels.

The physical resources available, including laboratories, field stations, engineering design studios, and testing facilities, can influence the design of the research question as well as the ability to access resources in the surrounding community including other parts of the campus. Institutions with an explicit mission to promote undergraduate research may provide more time, resources e. The culture of the institution with respect to innovation in pedagogy and support for faculty development can impact the extent to which UREs are introduced or improved.

These conditions suggest that UREs may need support from the institutional level in order to become sustainable and widespread in an institution. These goals, coupled with the design principles—make STEM research accessible, help students learn from each other, make thinking visible, and promote autonomy—can set the stage for a robust experience that can help students generate deeper learning.

Many research. The degree to which UREs are designed using the existing educational literature on pedagogy and how people learn is not clear. The heterogeneity of UREs as described in Chapter 2 stems from variability associated with the multiple systemic factors, goals, and design principles described in this chapter. National calls for reform efforts and opportunities for funding shape UREs on campus. However, institutions, departments, and faculty play a big role in creating the context that surrounds the URE. When there is alignment between the policies and culture, there may be an increase in the likelihood of sustaining a URE.

Adedokun, O. Understanding how undergraduate research experiences influence student aspirations for research careers and graduate education. Journal of College Science Teaching , 42 1 , Auchincloss, L. Assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences: A meeting report.

Barr, D. Chemistry courses as the turning point for premedical students. Advances in Health Sciences Education , 15 1 , Barton, A. Educational Policy , 12 5 , Berger, J. Understanding the organizational nature of student persistence: Empirically-based recommendations for practice. Journal of College Student Retention, 3 1 , Bjork, E.

Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning.

Gernsbacher, R. Pew, L. Hough, and J. Pomerantz Eds. New York: Worth Publishers. Bjork, R. Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64 , Blockus, L. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Bransford, J.

It takes expertise to make expertise: Some thoughts about why and how. Ericsson Ed. Brew, A. Understanding the scope of undergraduate research: A framework for curricular and pedagogical decision-making. Higher Education, 66 , Brown, A. Guided Discovery in a Community of Learners. Brownell, S. Toward a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of course-based undergraduate research experiences in undergraduate biology. Studies in Higher Education, 40 3 , A high enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

Clancy, M. New roles for students, instructors, and computers in a lab-based introductory programming course. Clement, N. Perspectives from research and practice in values education. Lovat and R. Toomey Eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Collins, A. The computer as a tool for learning through reflection. M Sebrechts, G. Fisher, and P. Fisher Eds. New York: Springer US. Cook-Deegan, R.

New York: Norton. Cortright, R. Student retention of course content is improved by collaborative-group testing. Advances in Psychology Education, 27 , Corwin, L. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: An agenda for future research and evaluation.


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Faculty opponent review: On mole and amount of substance: A study of the dynamics of concept formation and concept attainment. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, 1 4 , Dolan, E. Elrod, S. Increasing student success in STEM. Peer Review , 17 2. Estrada, M.

Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1 , Feldman, A. Becoming researchers: The participation of undergraduate and graduate students in scientific research groups. Science Education, 97 2 , Hernandez, P. Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM.

Journal of Educational Psychology , 1. Hurtado, S. Training future scientists: Predicting first-year minority student participation in health science research. Research in Higher Education , 49 2 , Johnson, D. Cooperative learning and social interdependence theory. Tindale, L. Heath, J. Edwards, E. Posavac, F. Bryant, Y. Suzrez-Balcazar, E.

Henderson-King, and J. Myers Eds. New York: Plenum. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 , The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19 1 , Johri, A. Situated engineering learning: Bridging engineering education research and the learning sciences. Journal of Engineering Education, 1 , Jordan, T.

A broadly implementable research course in phage discovery and genomics for first-year undergraduate students. MBio , 5 1 , e Karpicke, J. Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?. Memory , 17 4 , Katkin, W. The Boyer Commission Report and its impact on undergraduate research. New Directions for Teaching and Learning , 93 , Keller, C. Kezar, A. Examining the ways institutions create student engagement: The role of mission.

Journal of College Student Development , 47 2 , Kollar, I. Internal and external scripts in computer supported collaborative inquiry learning. Learning and Instruction, 17 6 , Koretsky, M. Student perception of learning in the laboratory: Comparison of industrially situated virtual laboratories to capstone physical laboratories.

Journal of Engineering Education, 3 , Kuh, G. Organizational culture and student persistence: Prospects and puzzles. Laursen, S. Lee, Jr. Lemke, J. Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Linn, M. Designing computer learning environments for engineering and computer science: The Scaffolded Knowledge Integration framework. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 4 2 , The knowledge integration perspective on learning and instruction.

Sawyer Ed. The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press. New York: Routledge. Cognitive and conceptual change in adolescence. American Journal of Education, 99 4 , Litzinger, T. Engineering education and the development of expertise. Liu, O. Validation of automated scoring of science assessments. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53 2 , Louis, D. Historically black colleges and universities: Undergraduate research, mentoring and extending the graduate pipeline. Mayer, R.


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  6. Multimedia learning in an interactive self-explaining environment: What works in the design of agent-based microworlds? Journal of Educational Psychology , 95 4 , Mendoza, N. Enculturation of diverse students to the engineering sciences through first year engineering college experiences at a southwestern institution: An exploratory work in progress. Merkel, C. California Institute of Technology. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research.

    Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy.